Hidden amidst the vast Sahara Desert lies Germa, the capital of the Kingdom of the Garamantes, an ancient civilization that thrived in what is now modern-day Libya. Today, an archaeological site located on the outskirts of the modern town of Germa, this enigmatic city stands as a testament to the ingenuity and resilience of ancient peoples who flourished in one of the harshest environments on Earth.

The Garamantes were initially documented circa 500 BC in the writings of the ancient Greek historian and geographer Herodotus, who described them as “living in the district where the wild beasts abound” and “have four-horse chariots, in which they chase the Troglodyte Ethiopians, who of all the nations whereof any account has reached our ears are by far the swiftest of foot.”

COORDINATES     26°32'40" N 13°03'47" E

Map Germa Garamantes Fezzan Libya

Ancient History and Origins

Germa's history dates back to around 1000 BC when it was established by the Garamantes, ancient peoples probably descendents of Berber tribes, Toubou tribes, and Saharan pastoralists, who inhabited the Fezzan region of present-day Libya. The Garamantes were skilled agriculturalists and traders who established the first urban settlement independent from the traditional reliance on river systems. They developed an intricate network of underground aqueducts known as foggaras to irrigate their crops in the arid desert environment.

Cover Germa-Garamantes-Fezzan-Libya-Drone

photo by Giulio Aprin


The rise of the Garamantes owed much to their ingenious subterranean water harvesting system, an intricate network of tunnels known as foggaras. This innovation not only rejuvenated their corner of the Sahara but also catalyzed a cascade of political and social transformations, propelling them towards expansion, urban development, and conquest.

However, to sustain and amplify their newfound prosperity, the Garamantes found themselves reliant on the maintenance and expansion of their subterranean water networks, a task that demanded a considerable influx of slaves.

Fortuitously for the Garamantes, their burgeoning population granted them both demographic and military superiority over neighboring societies within the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions. This demographic advantage empowered them to annex territories, subdue rival peoples, and amass a significant workforce through slave acquisition.


photo by Giulio Aprin



By approximately A.D. 150, the Garamantian realm, founded on slavery, sprawled across 70,000 square miles of present-day southern Libya, marking the first instance of a non-riverine Saharan society evolving into an urbanized entity. The epicenter of this civilization was the town of Germa, nestled within the Germa Oasis, boasting a population of around four thousand inhabitants. Additionally, an estimated six thousand individuals resided in satellite settlements surrounding the urban nucleus.

Fuelled by their aggressive expansionism, supported by a vast enslaved workforce and abundant water resources, the Garamantes thrived, cultivating local produce such as grapes, figs, sorghum, pulses, barley, and wheat. They also indulged in imported luxuries like wine and olive oil, enjoying a standard of living unparalleled in ancient Saharan societies.

The intricate interplay between slave labor, military might, and water management proved pivotal in shaping the Garamantian civilization.
Without slaves, their kingdom, and the prosperity it afforded, would have remained a distant dream.


photo by Giulio Aprin


Culture and Society

The culture of the Garamantes was characterized by their unique blend of Berber traditions, African influences, and interactions with neighboring civilizations such as the Romans and Greeks. Germa served as a hub for cultural exchange, where goods, ideas, and people from across the Sahara converged.


photo by Giulio Aprin



The society of Germa was organized into a hierarchical structure, with a ruling elite overseeing political affairs and religious rituals. The Garamantes practiced animistic beliefs, worshiping natural elements and celestial bodies, while also adopting elements of Roman and Greek religion over time.


photo by Giulio Aprin

Role in Trans-Saharan Routes

Germa's strategic location along trans-Saharan trade routes played a crucial role in its economic prosperity and cultural significance. The city served as a vital link between North Africa, the Mediterranean world, and sub-Saharan Africa, facilitating the exchange of goods such as gold, ivory, salt, spices, and slaves.

Traders from the Roman Empire, Carthage, Egypt, and beyond journeyed to Germa to barter and trade their goods, contributing to the city's cosmopolitan atmosphere and economic dynamism. The Garamantes became renowned for their expertise in navigating the desert and controlling key trade routes, establishing Germa as a dominant force in trans-Saharan commerce.


photo by Giulio Aprin

Economy and Trade

The economy of Germa was primarily based on agriculture, with the Garamantes cultivating crops such as wheat, barley, dates, and olives using innovative irrigation techniques. Additionally, the city benefited from trade taxes, tolls, and tariffs imposed on caravans passing through its territory, further enriching its coffers.


photo by Giulio Aprin

Germa's prosperity was also fueled by its control over valuable resources such as salt mines in the Sahara, which were in high demand for preserving food and seasoning. The city's wealth attracted merchants, artisans, and craftsmen, who contributed to its vibrant marketplace and cultural diversity.


photo by Giulio Aprin

Decline and Legacy

Ultimately, the depletion of easily accessible fossil water marked the downfall of the Garamantian kingdom. Over the span of approximately 600 years, starting in the fourth century A.D., they had extracted an estimated 30 billion gallons of water. However, they soon realized that their water supply was dwindling rapidly. To address this issue, they would have needed to construct additional man-made underground channels to supplement existing tunnels and dig even deeper extraction passages. However, this would have required a significantly larger number of slaves than they possessed. The water scarcity likely led to food shortages, population declines, and political instability, as indicated by defensive structures from that era possibly signaling fragmented governance. Expanding their territory and acquiring more slaves became impractical due to the imbalance between their population, military strength, economic power, and their ability to extract water.


photo by Giulio Aprin

Despite its flourishing existence, Germa eventually declined in the 7th century CE due to a combination of factors, including climatic changes, shifts in trade routes, invasions by rival tribes and empires, and those mentioned above.

The rise of Islam and the spread of Arab influence further marginalized the indigenous Berber populations, leading to the abandonment of Germa as a major urban center.

The desert kingdom fractured into small chiefdoms and was absorbed into the emerging Islamic world.


photo by Giulio Aprin


Similar to its renowned Roman counterpart, the once-prominent Saharan realm gradually transformed into mere legend and reminiscence. In the Fazzan region, Berbers have largely lost touch with their ancestors, much like the rest of the world. The remarkable water extraction system, once the pride of the Garamantes, has faded into obscurity to the extent that local inhabitants attribute its creation to the Romans.

Cover Germa-Garamantes-Fezzan-Libya-Drone 4

photo by Giulio Aprin

Nevertheless, the legacy of Germa endures in the archaeological remains scattered across the Sahara Desert, which offer glimpses into its past glory and contributions to trans-Saharan civilization. Excavations have unearthed impressive structures such as fortified walls, palaces, tombs, and the intricate network of foggaras, providing valuable insights into Garamantian society and culture.


photo by Giulio Aprin


1 Comment

  1. Griselda Stancati
    February 15, 2024 / 12:29 am

    Unreal. Would love to see this for myself

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